"Science and Technology of Multifunctional Oxide and Ultrananocrystalline Diamond (UNCD) Films and Applications to a New Generation of Biomedical Devices/Systems"
Orlando Auciello, (Argonne Distinguished Fellow) (AAAS and MRS Fellow)
Materials Science Division, Argonne National Laboratory
New paradigms in the research and development of novel multifunctional oxide and nanocarbon thin films are providing the bases for new physics and a new generation of multifunctional devices for micro/nano-electronics and biomedical devices and biosystems. This talk will focus on discussing the science, technology, and engineering of multifunctional oxide and nanocarbon thin films extensively investigated, developed and patented at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) during the last fifteen years, and the efforts focused on integrating them into a new generation of micro/nano-electronic devices and implantable biomedical devices and biosystems, as described below:
1. Science and technology of complex oxide thin films applicable to two key technologies: a) Novel TiO2/Al2O3 superlattices, exhibit giant dielectric constant (up to k=1000), low leakage current (10-7-10-9 A/cm2) and low losses (≤ tang d=0.04), based on new physics underlined by the Maxwell-Wagner relaxation mechanism, which enables a new generation of microchip embedded capacitors for microchips implantable in the human body, the next generation of gates for nanoscale CMOS devices, and super-capacitors embedded in implantable microchips.
2. Science and technology of novel ultrananocrystalline diamond (UNCD) films and integration for fabrication of a new generation of industrial components and multifunctional and biomedical devices: UNCD films developed and patented at Argonne National Laboratory are synthesized by a novel microwave plasma chemical vapor deposition technique using an Ar-rich/CH4 chemistry that produces films with 2-5 nm grains, thus the name UNCD to distinguish them from nanocrystalline diamond films with 30-100 nm grains. The UNCD films exhibit a unique combination of outstanding mechanical, trtibological, electrical, thermal, and biological properties, which already resulted in industrial components and devices currently commercialized by Advanced Diamond Technologies (a company co-founded by O. Auciello and J.A. Carlisle and spun-off from ANL in 2003). Devices and systems reviewed include: a) UNCD-coated mechanical pump seals for the petrochemical, pharmaceutical and car industries (shipping to market); b) UNCD-coated bearings for mixers for the pharmaceutical industry (shipping to Merck-Millipore market); c) new UNCD electrodes for water purification, which outperform all other electrodes in the market today (shipping to market); d) UNCD-based MEMS biosensors and energy harvesting devices for implantable energy sources; h) bioinert UNCD coating for encapsulation of a microchip implantable in the retina to restore sight to people blinded by retina photoreceptors degeneration (31 blind people received microchip implants in 5 countries and are reading letters and recognizing objects and walking through doors without aid); i) UNCD bioinert coating for heart valves; j) UNCD coating for devices to drain eye liquid for treatment of glaucoma; k) UNCD coating for magnets located outside the eye to produce magnetic fields to attract superparamagnetic nanoparticles injected in the eye to reattach detached retina; l) UNCD coating for stents; m) UNCD coating for artificial joints (hips and knees); n) UNCD surface used as a unique platform for growing stem cells and induce differentiation into various cells of the human body.
Orlando Auciello is an Argonne Distinguished Fellow at Argonne National Laboratory, working in the Materials Science Division (1996-present), and the Center for Nanoscale Materials (2006-2011) and an Adjunct Professor at University of Colorado-Colorado Springs and Michigan State University. He graduated with M.S. (1973) and Ph.D (1976) degrees in Physics from the Physics Institute “Dr. Balseiro” (Universidad Nacional de Cuyo, Argentina). He also studied Electronic Engineering at the University of Cordoba-Argentina (1964-1970). After a postdoc at McMaster University-Canada (1976-1979), he was a Researcher at the University of Toronto-Canada (1979-1984), Associate Professor at North Carolina State University (1985-1988), and Senior Research Scientist at the Microelectronics Center of North Carolina (1988-1996).
Auciello is directing several basic and applied research programs on different fields, namely: 1) science and technology of multi-component oxide thin films and application to devices (ferroelectric memories, nanoscale CMOS devices, photovoltaic energy generation / storage devices, high-frequency devices, piezoelectric thin films for MEMS/NEMS devices (sensors and actuators); 2) science and technology of a novel ultrananocrystalline diamond (UNCD) film, developed and patented at Argonne, and application to multifunctional devices (RF MEMS/NEMS, electron field emitters, implantable biomedical devices (artificial retina to restore sight to people blinded by retina degeneration), biosensors, mechanical pump seals).
The UNCD film technology is now commercialized by Advanced Diamond Technologies, a Company founded by Auciello and colleagues and spun-off from Argonne in 2003. Auciello co-founded a second company (Original Biomedical Implants-OBI) in 2011, to commercialize a new generation of implantable biomedical devices based on UNCD.
Auciello has edited 19 books on various topics, published about 450 articles in the fields described above, holds 14 patents, and organized, chaired, and lectured at numerous national and international conferences. He is associate editor of Appl. Phys. Lett., Integrated Ferroelectrics, Vacuum, and editor of two book series (Academic Press). He has held several positions in the Board of Directors of the Materials Research Society, including Councilor.